Refers to the property that information is not made available to or passed on to unauthorized individuals.
Suppose a hacker encrypts one's data using, for example, ransomware. The affected data does not lose its confidentiality, integrity, or availability, but it is no longer usable.
Refers to the accuracy of the originating claim or authorship of the information. For example, one method of verifying the authorship of a handwritten document is to compare the handwriting characteristics of the document with a sample of others that have already been verified. For electronic information, a digital signature could be used to verify the authorship of a digital document using public key cryptography.
A hacker steals encrypted data, even if the hacker cannot decrypt the data, the person who has been robbed is still concerned that the hacker could do so at any time now. This situation represents a loss of control or possession of information but does not involve a breach of confidentiality.
Means being able to access information in a timely manner. For example, both a hard disk crash and denial-of-service attacks result in an availability violation. Any delay that exceeds the expected service levels for a system can be called an availability violation.
Refers to the accuracy or consistency with the intended state of information. Any unauthorized modification of data, whether intentional or accidental, is a violation of data integrity. For example, data stored on disk is expected to be stable - it should not be accidentally altered by problems with a disk controller. Similarly, application programs should record information correctly and not introduce deviations from intended values.
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